Financing of Higher Education in a Context of Rapid Expansion: Cases in Anglophone (Kenya) and Francophone (Senegal) Africa

The paper is a comparative synthesis of two separate studies commissioned by the Working on Finance and Education (WGFE) on the financing of higher education on two African countries, one Anglophone Kenya and the other Francophone Senegal.. The studies set out to assess the experiences of the two countries regarding the financing of higher education in a rapid changing context. They highlight the daunting challenges facing Kenya and Senegal regarding higher education at a time of explosion in enrolments, dwindling resources, cross-border provision and emergence of a vibrant private sector that is in competition with the public sector. The specific objectives of the studies underscore the following key issues: i) general economic, political and social context of the two countries; ii) articulation between upper secondary and higher education; iii) funding sources as well as the taxonomy, determinants and behavioral characteristics of the costs of higher education. The controversial issue of cost recovery is also explored in the studies. The findings suggest that the bulk of higher education funding is still provided by the government, the enrolment explosion in upper secondary education negatively affects the system and there is growing recognition of cost recovery as a funding model to explore

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Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa
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